Country Profile: Oman

This Country Profile provides a basic overview of the legal history and institutional structures of the Sultanate of Oman (Saltanat Uman), based on research produced by GlobaLex at NYU Law School and the Library of Congress. Under Oman’s Constitution, Islamic law (sharīʿa or fiqh) is a primary source of legislation.

Country Background

Oman is a country located in the Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea. It is bounded by Yemen and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The capital of Oman is Muscat. The official language is Arabic. The country’s population in 2017 was approximately 3.4 million, 40% of whom are immigrants. The official religion of Oman is Islam. Oman is a predominantly Muslim country, with about 86% of the population Muslim. Oman is a member state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Arab League.

Constitution & Legal Structure

Oman is referred to as an absolute monarchy, in which sovereignty lies with the state. The Omani Constitution was adopted in 1991, and was most recently amended in 2011. The system of government is a hereditary sultanate in which succession passes to a male descendant of Sayyid Turki bin Said bin Sultan. There are three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative branch consists of . . .

Read Oman’s profile.