By Nimra Azmi In March 2015, the Pakistani Senate unanimously passed the Anti-Rape Laws Bill of 2014. (While the Anti-Rape Laws Bill has passed in the upper house, it is awaiting approval of the National Assembly or the lower house of the Pakistani Parliament, the Majlis-e-Shura.) This Bill is the most recent major move made … Continue reading Pakistan’s Anti-Rape Laws Bill: Panacea or Posturing?
By Nimra Azmi In 1999, Pakistan passed an amendment to the 1997 Anti-Terrorism Act. This Amendment listed gang rape, child molestation, and robbery coupled with rape as terrorist acts under the ATA. When the 1999 Amendment was passed, rape (zinā' bi'l jabr), which included the ATA sexual offenses, was governed by the Zina Ordinance, a … Continue reading A Patchwork Pakistani: Gang Rape, Jurisdiction, and the Mukhtar Mai Case
By Nimra Azmi Pakistan’s 2006 Protection of Women Act (PWA) should have been a victory for progressive Pakistani forces, a definitive end to the 1979 Hudood Ordinances’ draconian reign over rape in Pakistan. The actual landscape, however, is not so clear-cut. While not commonly discussed in the narrative of Pakistani rape law, a 2010 Federal … Continue reading The Protection of Women Act vs. the Hudood Ordinance: A Federal Shariat Court Challenge
By Nimra Azmi From 1979 until 2006, the Zina Ordinance, a subsection of the Hudood Ordinances, governed rape under Pakistani law. The Hudood Ordinances were implemented during the rule of President Zia ul-Haq, who presided over the country from 1977-1988 as a military dictator. Representing a conservative Islamic orthodoxy of a Ḥanafī bent, Zia ul-Haq … Continue reading Rape & the Hudood Ordinance: A Lost Opportunity